The big theological word for understanding how to study scripture is hermeneutics. I've posted on this in the past and anyone who has spent any time with me talking about spiritual things has probably picked up on my interest in this subject.
I grew up in a home and church where a Strict Rationalist hermeneutic was taught. That standard was expressed in three criteria:
- Direct Command
- Explicit Example
- Necessary Inference
The traditional Rabbinic hermeneutic is different and more through than Strict Rationalism. It allows a deeper divining of the full council. I just starting to use it in my own study. Check out what my good friend Rabbi B has to say in his Garden of the Torah post.